Panel VII. Post-War Security Architecture in Europe. What Kind of Security Guarantees Should Ukraine Receive?
The first panel of the second day was chaired by Ambassador Doru Costea, member of the Scientific Council of the New Strategy Center, Romania, titled “Post-War Security Architecture in Europe. What Kind of Security Guarantees Should Ukraine Receive?”. H.E. was joined by Mrs. Svitlana KOVALCHUK, Executive Director, Yalta European Strategy, Ukraine, Mr. Basat ÖZTÜRK – Director General for International Security Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Türkiye, Mr. James CARAFANO, Vice President of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies, The Heritage Foundation, USA, General (Ret.) Sir James EVERARD, Honorary Chairman of the International Consultative Board of New Strategy Center, former DSACEUR, UK (via VTC), Mr. Markus KAIM, Senior Fellow, Research Division, German Institute for International and Security Affairs – SWP, Germany.
The Kyiv authorities proposed the implementation of security guarantees offered by states capable of contributing to Ukraine’s Euro-Atlantic progress. Negotiations for such agreements are currently underway with G7 countries. Ukraine sees these bilateral security agreements as a means of ensuring stability in the near future, until it joins NATO. However, questions remain about the long-term effectiveness of these guarantees. For example, in 1993, Ukraine gave up its nuclear arsenal because it believed in the security guarantees stipulated in the Budapest Memorandum. Therefore, building a strong defense industry and developing a robust economy remain key to strengthening Ukraine’s ability to face threats from Russia.
Panel VIII. How Romania should respond to the security challenges in the Black Sea in the context of the Russia’s war in Ukraine
The second panel of the second day took the form of a dynamic discussion between Major General (Ret.) Leonardo DINU, member of the Scientific Council of the New Strategy Center, Romania and Major General Remus BONDOR, Acting Deputy Chief of Defence Staff for Operations and Training, Romania.
Romania has repeatedly addressed the threat posed by Russia in the Black Sea region. However, the annexation of Crimea in 2014 caught many international actors by surprise. Since then, the Romanian state has implemented significant measures to enhance its capabilities in responding to Russian military threats. Romania decided to host the NATO Force Integration Unit and the Multinational Corps Southeast. Additionally, the modernization of military equipment has been a priority, including the acquisition of anti-aircraft defense systems, aircraft, and reconnaissance systems. Simultaneously, active participation in NATO exercises abroad has strengthened the Romanian army’s interoperability with Alliance partners. The Romanian government has financially supported these initiatives, initially allocating 2% of GDP to the defense sector and, in 2023, increasing this figure to 2.5% of GDP. The country’s preparation and investments facilitated a more efficient adaptation to the shock of the February 2022 invasion, as Romania anticipated the possibility of Russia using military instruments.